Gagosian Quarterly

June 19, 2020

Rainer Maria Rilke:Duino Elegies

Bobbie Sheng explores the symbiotic relationship between the poet and visual artists of his time and tracks the enduring influence of his poetry on artists working today.

Rainer Maria Rilke, 1928. Photo: Lou Andreas-Salomé

Rainer Maria Rilke, 1928. Photo: Lou Andreas-Salomé

Bobbie Sheng

Bobbie Sheng is a press writer for Gagosian. She has held curatorial research positions at the Frick Collection, New York, and the Art Institute of Chicago.

More than ever
the things of experience are falling away, since
what ousts and replaces them is an act with no image.
An act, under a crust that will split, as soon as
the business within outgrows it, and limit itself differently.
Between the hammers, our heart
lives on, as the tongue
between the teeth, that
in spite of them, keeps praising.

—Rainer Maria Rilke, “The Ninth Elegy”1

In 1912, Rainer Maria Rilke received an invitation from Princess Marie von Thurn und Taxis—his longtime patron and closest friend—to stay at Duino Castle, a picturesque fortress just north of Trieste, Italy. There, while standing atop a cliff overlooking the Adriatic Sea, Rilke claimed to hear the following line: “Who, if I cried out, would hear me among the angelic orders?” That evening, the poet immediately set to work, turning these words into the opening lines of what would eventually become the Duino Elegies.

For the next decade, Rilke would engage in an arduous cycle of labor characterized by violent and sporadic bouts of literary creation. It was not until 1923 that the Duino Elegies emerged in their totality: a collection of ten intensely religious metaphysical poems informed by the anxieties, traumas, and fragmentations brought on by war and modern life. Yet even as they address the interplay between suffering and beauty in human existence, the Elegies nevertheless project a hopeful vision of a more peaceful world. In the century since its creation, Rilke’s seminal work has inspired generations of artists, providing a direct launching point as well as informing broader ruminations on humankind’s fleeting moments of contact with transient, sublime beauty.

Ten years prior to his divine encounter on the Adriatic cliffs, Rilke had moved to Paris to write a monograph on Auguste Rodin, initiating a complex but lasting friendship between the two men. Rilke venerated the sculptor’s ability to translate poetic sentiments into figuration, as exemplified by Rodin’s large bronze cast La muse tragique (1896). Originally conceived as part of the Monument to Victor Hugo (1889)—in which the muse is perched above the French literary giant and whispers inspiration into his ear—this version of La muse tragique takes the form of a single-figure sculpture, thus evoking a heightened pathos befitting its subject’s symbolic identity. The resulting work is perhaps even more haunting than the original monument; the muse’s arm encircles a missing human presence—a negative space that is at once funereal and ethereal.

Rainer Maria Rilke: Duino Elegies

Auguste Rodin, La muse tragique, 1896, bronze, 30 ¾ × 46 × 49 ¼ inches (78 × 117 × 125 cm). Photo: Rob McKeever

In the 1960s, a young Anselm Kiefer picked up a copy of Rilke’s Rodin monograph, marking his first encounter with the work of sculptor and poet alike. Through Rilke’s evocative prose, Kiefer developed a profound appreciation for Rodin, whose naturalistic touch and tendency toward the monumental would make him one of Kiefer’s most enduring sources of inspiration. But the clearest connection between the two artists emerges through their watercolors and oil paintings: simple yet sensuous nude studies, and fantastical landscapes whose roiling accumulations of pigment and texture delve into the realm of semiabstraction.

Look, trees exist; houses
we live in, still stand. Only we
pass everything by, like an exchange of air.
And all is at one, in keeping us secret, half out of
shame perhaps, half out of inexpressible hope.

—Rilke, “The Second Elegy”

Rainer Maria Rilke: Duino Elegies

Installation view, Duino Elegies, Gagosian, 980 Madison Avenue, New York, March 5–June 27, 2020. Artwork © Anselm Kiefer. Photo: Rob McKeever

First conceived in 1893, Medardo Rosso’s Bambino ebreo (Jewish Boy) emerged as one of the artist’s most beloved late-career motifs. In a continuing endeavor to represent complex emotion in the young child’s features, Rosso re-created and recast the somber portrait bust several times for numerous exhibitions and personal gifts. In a plaster version of Bambino ebreo of circa 1920–25, Rosso employed wax—normally a preparatory medium—as a finish, harnessing its deathly connotations of impermanence and decay as well as its approximation of the warmth and tenderness of human flesh, his impulse akin to Rilke’s own existential meditations on the temporary nature of life.

For beauty is nothing but
the beginning of terror, that we are still able to bear,
and we revere it so, because it calmly disdains
to destroy us. 

—Rilke, “The First Elegy”

Rainer Maria Rilke: Duino Elegies

Medardo Rosso, Bambino ebreo, c. 1920–25, wax on plaster, 9 ⅜ × 7 ⅛ × 5 ¾ inches (23.7 × 17.9 × 14.4 cm). Photo: Rabatti & Domingie

Reminiscing on his formative education, Cy Twombly wrote: “It was impossible to come out of Black Mountain College and not love Rilke.” Forging a direct, powerful connection to the Elegies, Twombly’s painting Duino (1967) marries the artist’s investigations of geometric form with his consistent interest in literature. To create this “blackboard”—one of a group of works named for their evocation of the schoolroom wall—Twombly scrawled, effaced, and reinscribed the name of Rilke’s titular castle in white wax crayon on a dark gray oil ground, positing the act of writing as an artistic gesture in itself.

Rainer Maria Rilke: Duino Elegies

Cy Twombly, Duino, 1967, oil-based house paint and wax crayon on canvas, 70 × 58 inches (177.8 × 147.3 cm) © Cy Twombly Foundation. Photo: Rob McKeever

Rainer Maria Rilke: Duino Elegies

Edmund de Waal, elegie, 2020, kaolin, graphite, gold, oil stick, oak, and ash, in 2 parts, overall: 33 ⅛ × 46 ⅞ × 1 ¾ inches (84 × 119 × 4.5 cm) © Edmund de Waal. Photo: Mike Bruce

On the occasion of Duino Elegies, presented in March 2020 at Gagosian in New York Edmund de Waal produced elegie (2020), a new work in dialogue with Twombly’s painting for which de Waal used his chosen medium of ceramics to improvise on the earlier artist’s trademark handwritten canvases. The connection to Rilke is a personal one for de Waal: his grandmother Elisabeth de Waal (née Ephrussi) was a writer who struck up an extended correspondence about poetry with Rilke himself. De Waal’s diptych is made from kaolin brushed over a pair of wood panels; on top of these chalky surfaces he scribbles literary snippets in graphite and oil stick, partially smearing and overwriting them to simulate the mutability of observation. With its looping, penciled-in script and pale ground, de Waal’s graphic sculpture comprises an aesthetic inverse and creative tribute to Twombly’s Duino—and to the literary legacy of Rilke before him.

1All quotations from Rainer Maria Rilke, Duino Elegies (1923), trans. A. S. Kline, Poetry in Translation (website), 2004,

Duino Elegies, Gagosian, 980 Madison Avenue, New York, March 5–June 27, 2020

Carrie Mae Weems’s The Louvre (2006), on the cover of Gagosian Quarterly, Summer 2021

Now available
Gagosian Quarterly Summer 2021

The Summer 2021 issue of Gagosian Quarterly is now available, featuring Carrie Mae Weems’s The Louvre (2006) on its cover.

Cy Twombly, Untitled, 1990, acrylic, wax crayon, and pencil on handmade paper, 30 ⅝ × 21 ⅝ inches (77.8 × 54.8 cm)

Twombly and the Poets

Anne Boyer, the inaugural winner of the Cy Twombly Award in Poetry, composes a poem in response to TwomblyAristaeus Mourning the Loss of His Bees (1973) and introduces a portfolio of the painters works accompanied by the poems that inspired them.

Gerhard Richter’s Helen (1963) on the cover of Gagosian Quarterly, Spring 2021

Now available
Gagosian Quarterly Spring 2021

The Spring 2021 issue of Gagosian Quarterly is now available, featuring Gerhard Richter’s Helen (1963) on its cover.

Edmund de Waal and Theaster Gates

Artist to Artist: Edmund de Waal and Theaster Gates

Join the artists for an extended conversation about their most recent exhibitions, their forebears in the world of ceramics, and the key role that history plays in their practices.

Installation view, Edmund de Waal: some winter pots, Gagosian, Davies Street

Edmund de Waal: some winter pots

Join the artist in his ceramics studio as he describes the impetus behind his exhibition in London and the importance of touch in the creation of these new works.

Edmund de Waal working in his studio.

Edmund de Waal: cold mountain clay

At his studio in London, Edmund de Waal speaks about his new body of work, created in the silence and solitude of lockdown. Composed of layers of porcelain slip inscribed with lines of verse by the poet Hanshan, these works are presented in cold mountain clay, de Waal’s first exhibition in Hong Kong.

Edmund de Waal, London, 2019

Edmund de Waal: psalm

Edmund de Waal speaks with Alison McDonald about the components of psalm, his two-part project in Venice. He details the influences behind the exhibition and reveals some of his hopes for the project.


Mythologies: A Conversation with Erlend Høyersten

Gagosian’s Georges Armaos speaks with the director of ARoS Aarhus Art Museum, Denmark, about the exhibition Mythologies: The Beginning and End of Civilizations, the art of Anselm Kiefer, and the role of museums during times of crisis.

Featuring Joan Jonas’s Mirror Piece 1 (1969) on its cover.

Now available
Gagosian Quarterly Summer 2020

The Summer 2020 issue of Gagosian Quarterly is now available, featuring Joan Jonas’s Mirror Piece 1 (1969) on its cover.

Anselm Kiefer, Volkszählung (Census), 1991, steel, lead, glass, peas, and photographs, 163 ⅜ × 224 ½ × 315 inches (4.1 × 5.7 × 8 m)/

Cast of Characters

James Lawrence explores how contemporary artists have grappled with the subject of the library.

Sally Mann and Edmund de Waal at the Frick Collection, New York, November 8, 2019.

In Conversation
Edmund de Waal and Sally Mann

Sally Mann joins Edmund de Waal onstage at the Frick Collection in New York to converse about art, writing, and the importance of place in their respective bodies of work. 

Edmund de Waal and Jan Dalley, FT Weekend Festival, London, September 7, 2019

In Conversation
Edmund de Waal and Jan Dalley

At the FT Weekend Festival 2019 in London, Edmund de Waal sat down for a conversation with Financial Times arts editor Jan Dalley. They spoke about the relationship between words and sculpture in his practice, and about two recent projects: the two-part exhibition psalm, in Venice, and Elective Affinities, at the Frick Collection, New York.