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Donald Judd

Donald Judd, untitled, 1965 Galvanized iron, 6 × 27 × 24 inches (15.2 × 68.6 × 61 cm)© 2021 Judd Foundation/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York

Donald Judd, untitled, 1965

Galvanized iron, 6 × 27 × 24 inches (15.2 × 68.6 × 61 cm)
© 2021 Judd Foundation/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York

Donald Judd, untitled, 1978 Plywood, 19 ¾ × 39 ⅜ × 19 ¾ inches (50 × 100 × 50 cm)© 2021 Judd Foundation/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York

Donald Judd, untitled, 1978

Plywood, 19 ¾ × 39 ⅜ × 19 ¾ inches (50 × 100 × 50 cm)
© 2021 Judd Foundation/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York

Donald Judd, untitled, 1980 Plywood, 12 × 80 × 4 feet (3.7 × 24.4 × 1.2 m)© 2021 Judd Foundation/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Photo: Rob McKeever

Donald Judd, untitled, 1980

Plywood, 12 × 80 × 4 feet (3.7 × 24.4 × 1.2 m)
© 2021 Judd Foundation/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Photo: Rob McKeever

Donald Judd, untitled, 1991 Clear anodized aluminum with transparent amber over black acrylic sheets, 9 ⅞ × 39 ⅜ × 9 ⅞ inches (25 × 100 × 25 cm)© 2021 Judd Foundation/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York

Donald Judd, untitled, 1991

Clear anodized aluminum with transparent amber over black acrylic sheets, 9 ⅞ × 39 ⅜ × 9 ⅞ inches (25 × 100 × 25 cm)
© 2021 Judd Foundation/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York

About

Everything sculpture has, my work doesn’t.
—Donald Judd

Donald Judd’s radical work and thinking helped shape the look of the late twentieth century and continues to influence artists, architects, and designers worldwide. He has exercised a transformative influence over the ways in which both art objects and practical designs are produced, exhibited, encountered, and used.

Judd was born in 1928 in Excelsior Springs, Missouri. After serving in the United States Army in Korea from June 1946 until November 1947, he returned to the US and attended the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia; the Art Students League of New York; and Columbia University in New York, where he completed a BS in philosophy in 1953. He went on to work toward a master’s degree in art history at Columbia. From 1959 to 1965, Judd was a prolific critic for magazines including Arts, Art International, and Art News; he continued to write throughout his career, addressing the relationship of art practice to architecture, design, political action, and lived experience in letters and published essays. As an artist, he started out as a painter before turning to three-dimensional work.

In the early 1960s Judd wrote a number of essays calling for the rejection of illusionism in favor of an art of tangible substance. In doing so, he aligned himself with other artists, including John Chamberlain and Dan Flavin, whose work also incorporated commonplace and industrial materials. He began to employ fabricators to produce his work, expanding the studio process in a way that also influenced the emergent Conceptual art movement. Recognizing the physical environment as intrinsic to his work, Judd came to address spatial concerns through three-dimensional form, and the mid-to-late 1960s saw him produce many iconic works including the “stacks”—which are hung at regular intervals in a vertical configuration—and “progressions”—the measurements of which are determined by numerical sequences.

In 1963, Green Gallery in New York held Judd’s first solo exhibition of mature work, and in 1966, Leo Castelli organized what would be the first in an extended series of solo exhibitions for the artist. In 1966, he participated in Primary Structures, a pivotal exhibition at the Jewish Museum, New York, curated by Kynaston McShine. Critically acclaimed for its innovative contextualization of geometric and reductive aesthetics, McShine’s exhibition also resonated with Judd’s artistic approach in its specific organization of objects in relation to the space of the gallery.

In the mid-1960s, Judd began making hollow metal boxes, many with colored interiors, which he placed directly onto the floor, breaking with the use of pedestals traditional to sculpture. In attempting to erase the physical and psychological distance between object and observer, Judd aimed to make his works part of their environment, and of the viewer’s world. This intention resonated with his ideas about the permanent installation of artworks, which he developed further with his 1968 purchase of 101 Spring Street, a five-story building in SoHo, New York, that served as a residence and studio for the next twenty-five years. In 1973, he began acquiring properties in Marfa, Texas, installing his own and other artists’ work there until his death in 1994.

Judd aimed to preserve his art, spaces, libraries, and archives as a lasting resource, and to this end defined the principles of Judd Foundation in 1977. He also founded the Chinati Foundation/La Fundación Chinati in 1986 for the permanent installation of large-scale works by himself and his contemporaries. Major exhibitions include the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York (1968 and 1988); Stedelijk Van Abbemuseum, Eindhoven, Netherlands (1970); National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa (1975); Tate Modern, London (2004); and Museum of Modern Art, New York (2020–21).

Donald Judd

Photo: Leo Holub, courtesy Judd Foundation Archives, Marfa, Texas

Jordan Wolfson’s House with Face (2017) on the cover of Gagosian Quarterly, Fall 2022

Now available
Gagosian Quarterly Fall 2022

The Fall 2022 issue of Gagosian Quarterly is now available, featuring Jordan Wolfson’s House with Face (2017) on its cover.

Image of Donald Judd with Jeff Kopie, Architecture Office, Marfa, Texas, 1993

There is No Neutral Space: The Architecture of Donald Judd, Part 2

In this second installment of a two-part essay, Julian Rose continues his exploration of Donald Judd’s engagement with architecture. Here, he examines the artist’s proposals for projects in Bregenz, Austria, and in Basel, arguing that Judd’s approach to shaping space provides a model for contemporary architectural production.

First Library, La Mansana de Chinati/The Block, Judd Foundation, Marfa, Texas. Photo: Matthew Millman © Judd Foundation

Building a Legacy
Judd Foundation Archives

Richard Shiff speaks with Caitlin Murray, director of archives and programs at Judd Foundation, about the archive of Donald Judd, how to approach materials that occupy the gray area between document and art, and some of the considerations unique to stewarding an archive housed within and adjacent to spaces conceived by the artist.

Black and white image of Donald Judd inspecting the new roof on the south Artillery Shed, Marfa, Texas, c. 1984.

There Is No Neutral Space: The Architecture of Donald Judd, Part 1

Julian Rose explores the question: what does it mean for an artist to make architecture? Delving into the archives of Donald Judd, he examines three architectural projects by the artist. Here, in the first installment of a two-part essay, he begins with an invitation in Bregenz, Austria, in the early 1990s, before turning to an earlier project, in Marfa, Texas, begun in 1979.

Marta Kuzma, Eileen Costello, and Caitlin Murray in conversation surrounded by Donald Judd paintings.

In Conversation
Eileen Costello, Marta Kuzma, and Caitlin Murray on Donald Judd: Paintings

Art historian Eileen Costello and Yale School of Art professor Marta Kuzma discuss Donald Judd’s two-dimensional work and how the lessons he learned from the innovations of Abstract Expressionist and Color Field paintings permeate his entire body of work. Their conversation is moderated by Caitlin Murray, director of archives and programs at Judd Foundation.

Martha Buskirk and Peter Ballantine speaking with one another

In Conversation
Peter Ballantine and Martha Buskirk on Donald Judd

Peter Ballantine, Donald Judd’s longtime fabricator of plywood works, and Martha Buskirk, professor of art history and criticism at Montserrat College of Art in Beverly, Massachusetts, discuss the development, production, and history of the largest plywood construction Judd ever made, an untitled work from 1980.

Flavin Judd leading a tour of the exhibition Donald Judd: Artwork: 1980 at Gagosian, 21st Street, New York

Behind the Art
Donald Judd: Exhibition Tour

In this video, Flavin Judd, the artist’s son and artistic director of Judd Foundation, leads a walkthrough of the exhibition Donald Judd: Artwork: 1980 at Gagosian, West 21st Street, New York. Flavin connects the work to the concurrent retrospective at the Museum of Modern Art, New York, and the permanent installations in Marfa, Texas, highlighting how it fits within Judd’s oeuvre.

A detail of Donald Judd's 1980 untitled artwork

Donald Judd: Artwork: 1980

Flavin Judd, the artist’s son and artistic director of Judd Foundation, speaks with Kara Vander Weg about the recent installation of the sculptor’s eighty-foot-long plywood work from 1980 at Gagosian, New York.

Fairs, Events & Announcements

Gagosian’s booth at Art Basel Miami Beach 2022. Artwork, left to right: © Gerhard Richter; © Amoako Boafo; © Richard Prince; © 2022 Judd Foundation/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York; © Richard Diebenkorn Foundation; © The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts, Inc./Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York; © Stanley Whitney. Photo: Sebastiano Pellion di Persano

Art Fair

Art Basel Miami Beach 2022

December 1–3, 2022, Booth D5
Miami Beach Convention Center
artbasel.com

Gagosian is pleased to present a selection of modern and contemporary works at Art Basel Miami Beach 2022. Returning to Miami for the fair’s twentieth anniversary, the gallery is honored to have participated each year the fair has been held.

Gagosian’s booth at Art Basel Miami Beach 2022. Artwork, left to right: © Gerhard Richter; © Amoako Boafo; © Richard Prince; © 2022 Judd Foundation/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York; © Richard Diebenkorn Foundation; © The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts, Inc./Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York; © Stanley Whitney. Photo: Sebastiano Pellion di Persano

Installation view, New York: 1962–1964, Jewish Museum, New York, July 22, 2022–January 8, 2023. Artwork, left to right: © 2022 Kenneth Noland/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York; © 2022 Estate of Isamu Noguchi/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York; © 2022 Robert Rauschenberg Foundation; © 2022 Judd Foundation/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York; © Marjorie Strider. Photo: Nicholas Venezia, courtesy Selldorf Architects

In Conversation

New York: Between Art and Life: The Task of the Critic
Flavin Judd in conversation with Johanna Fateman and Wayne Koestenbaum

Thursday, November 3, 2022, 6:30–8pm EDT
thejewishmuseum.org

Join Judd Foundation and the Jewish Museum, New York, for an online conversation on the occasion of the Jewish Museum’s exhibition New York: 1962–1964, the final project conceived and curated by Germano Celant (1940–2020). The exhibition explores a pivotal three-year period in the history of art and culture in New York City by examining how artists living and working in the city responded to their rapidly changing world. Flavin Judd, artistic director of Judd Foundation, will speak with writers and critics Johanna Fateman and Wayne Koestenbaum about connections between artists represented in the exhibition, Donald Judd’s work as a critic, and the state of art criticism in a conversation moderated by Sarah C. Bancroft, executive director of the James Rosenquist Foundation. The recorded conversation will air on the Jewish Museum’s YouTube channel.

Register

Installation view, New York: 1962–1964, Jewish Museum, New York, July 22, 2022–January 8, 2023. Artwork, left to right: © 2022 Kenneth Noland/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York; © 2022 Estate of Isamu Noguchi/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York; © 2022 Robert Rauschenberg Foundation; © 2022 Judd Foundation/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York; © Marjorie Strider. Photo: Nicholas Venezia, courtesy Selldorf Architects

Still from “La Mansana de Chinati/The Block, Judd Foundation, Marfa, Texas” © Judd Foundation. Artwork © 2022 Judd Foundation/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York

In Conversation

Rainer Judd
Sofia Coppola

Tuesday, June 28, 2022, 12pm EDT

Join Judd Foundation and Bloomberg Connects for a special conversation with Rainer Judd and Sofia Coppola. The pair will discuss the creative process of filmmaking, focusing on short films about Judd Foundation spaces in New York and Marfa, Texas. The films, produced by Judd Foundation and Terremoto Films, and codirected by Rainer Judd and Joseph Cashiola with cinematographer Darren Lew in New York, feature narration by Donald Judd. The conversation will be followed by a question-and-answer session. To join the online event, register at onlineexperiences.com.

Still from “La Mansana de Chinati/The Block, Judd Foundation, Marfa, Texas” © Judd Foundation. Artwork © 2022 Judd Foundation/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York

See all News for Donald Judd

Museum Exhibitions

Andy Warhol, Empire, 1964 (still), Andy Warhol Museum, Pittsburgh © The Andy Warhol Museum, Pittsburgh, a museum of Carnegie Institute. All rights reserved

On View

New York: 1962–1964

Through January 8, 2023
Jewish Museum, New York
thejewishmuseum.org

The final project conceived and curated by Germano Celant (1940–2020), this exhibition explores a pivotal three-year period in the history of art and culture in New York City, examining how artists living and working in the city responded to their rapidly changing world. The more than 150 artworks on view were all made or seen in New York between 1962 and 1964. Work by Donald Judd, Roy Lichtenstein, and Andy Warhol is included.

Andy Warhol, Empire, 1964 (still), Andy Warhol Museum, Pittsburgh © The Andy Warhol Museum, Pittsburgh, a museum of Carnegie Institute. All rights reserved

Installation view, Variation in Print: Amerikanische Druckgrafik, Kunstmuseum Basel, April 30–August 28, 2022. Artwork © Brice Marden/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Photo: Jonas Hänggi

Closed

Variation in Print
Amerikanische Druckgrafik

April 30–August 28, 2022
Kunstmuseum Basel
kunstmuseumbasel.ch

This exhibition, whose subtitle translates to American Graphic Art, explores the so-called “graphic boom,” when, beginning in the 1960s, prominent American artists eagerly explored the potentials and challenges of printmaking. The technical particularities of the medium—including serial repetition, the use of found motifs, and the division of idea and execution among multiple participants—provided stimuli that became central to their artistic concepts. Work by Donald Judd and Brice Marden is included.

Installation view, Variation in Print: Amerikanische Druckgrafik, Kunstmuseum Basel, April 30–August 28, 2022. Artwork © Brice Marden/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Photo: Jonas Hänggi

Installation view, Donald Judd, Museum of Modern Art, New York, March 1, 2020–January 9, 2021. Artwork © 2020 Judd Foundation/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York

Closed

Donald Judd

March 1, 2020–January 9, 2021
Museum of Modern Art, New York
www.moma.org

Bringing together sculptures, paintings, drawings, and rarely seen works from throughout Donald Judd’s career, this exhibition is the first US retrospective in over thirty years to explore this artist’s remarkable vision.

Installation view, Donald Judd, Museum of Modern Art, New York, March 1, 2020–January 9, 2021. Artwork © 2020 Judd Foundation/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York